Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses identified in Canada between 2000 and 2013

Avian Pathol. 2014;43(3):264-8. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2014.916395. Epub 2014 May 16. Martin EA1, Brash ML, Hoyland SK, Coventry JM, Sandrock C, Guerin MT, Ojkic D. Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected in 185 samples originating from chicken flocks of various commodity groups in Canada. Flocks with clinical signs such as respiratory challenge, sudden death, egg production […]

Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

Front Microbiol. 2014 Jun 17;5:282. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00282. eCollection 2014. Diarra MS1, Malouin F2. Abstract The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth […]

Characterization of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from retail poultry meats from Alberta, Canada.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2014 May 2;177:49-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Feb 21. Aslam M1, Toufeer M1, Narvaez Bravo C2, Lai V3, Rempel H3, Manges A4, Diarra MS5. Abstract Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) have the potential to spread through fecal waste resulting in the contamination of both farm workers and retail poultry meat in […]

Selected lactic acid-producing bacterial isolates with the capacity to reduce Salmonella translocation and virulence gene expression in chickens

PLoS One. 2014 Apr 11;9(4):e93022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093022. eCollection 2014. Yang X1, Brisbin J2, Yu H1, Wang Q1, Yin F1, Zhang Y1, Sabour P1, Sharif S2, Gong J1. Abstract BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected […]

Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens.

Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens. Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. […]

Induction of innate immune response following infectious bronchitis corona virus infection in the respiratory tract of chickens

Virology. 2014 Feb;450-451:114-21. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.001. Epub 2013 Dec 30. Kameka AM1, Haddadi S1, Kim DS1, Cork SC1, Abdul-Careem MF2. Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) replicates in the epithelial cells of trachea and lungs of chicken, however the mechanism of generation of innate immune response against IBV infection in these tissues has not been fully characterized. […]

Assessment of attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains in controlling experimental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in chickens.

Pei Y1, Parreira VR1, Roland KL1, Curtiss R 3rd1, Prescott JF1. Abstract in English, French Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as […]

TLR ligands induce antiviral responses in chicken macrophages.

Abstract Chicken macrophages express several receptors for recognition of pathogens, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from bacterial or viral pathogens leading to the activation of macrophages. Macrophages play a critical role in immunity against viruses, including influenza viruses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that […]

Effects of ligands for Toll-like receptors 3, 4, and 21 as adjuvants on the immunogenicity of an avian influenza vaccine in chickens.

Viral Immunol. 2014 May;27(4):167-73. doi: 10.1089/vim.2013.0124. Epub 2014 May 5. St Paul M1, Barjesteh N, Brisbin JT, Villaneueva AI, Read LR, Hodgins D, Nagy É, Sharif S. Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great concern to the worldwide community as well as the poultry industry. Although existing vaccines are successful in limiting the spread […]

Avian influenza virus vaccines containing Toll-like receptors 2 and 5 ligand adjuvants promote protective immune responses in chickens.

Viral Immunol. 2014 May;27(4):160-6. doi: 10.1089/vim.2013.0129. Epub 2014 May 5. St Paul M1, Brisbin JT, Barjesteh N, Villaneueva AI, Parvizi P, Read LR, Nagy E, Sharif S. Abstract Vaccination remains a useful means for the control of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in chickens. Current vaccines can protect chickens from morbidity and mortality. However, they do […]

The effects of administration of ligands for Toll-like receptor 4 and 21 against Marek’s disease in chickens.

Vaccine. 2014 Apr 7;32(17):1932-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.01.082. Epub 2014 Feb 13. Parvizi P1, Abdul-Careem MF2, Mallick AI3, Haq K4, Haghighi HR1, Orouji S1, Heidari M5, Behboudi S6, Sharif S7. Abstract Ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to stimulate immune responses, leading to protection against bacterial and viral pathogens. Here, we aimed to examine the effects […]

Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral RNA.

Delnatte P1, Nagy É, Ojkic D, Leishman D, Crawshaw G, Elias K, Smith DA. Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. Abstract We surveyed free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (ABV) and […]

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys

Dr Barta Lab Abstract BACKGROUND: Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly […]

Description of two new Isospora species causing visceral coccidiosis in captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus (Aves: Sturnidae)

Dr Barta Lab Abstract Isospora greineri sp. n. and Isospora superbusi sp. n. are described from captive superb glossy starlings, Lamprotornis superbus, from the Toronto Zoo succumbing to visceral coccidiosis. Sequence data from nuclear 18S recombinant DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) loci from sporulated oocysts and infected tissues (liver, lung, […]

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Hepatozoon catesbianae (Apicomplexa: Coc-cidia: Adeleorina), a blood parasite of the green frog, Lithobates (formerly Rana) clamitans

Dr Barta Lab Abstract A complete mitochondrial genome for the blood parasite Hepatozoon catesbianae (Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Adeleorina; Hepatozoidae) was obtained through PCR amplification and direct sequencing of resulting PCR products. The mitochondrial genome of H. catesbianae is 6,397 bp in length and contains 3 protein-coding genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI]; cytochrome c […]

On-farm sources of Campylobacter species in broiler chickens (Dr Agnes Agunos et al)

Agnes Agunos, Lisa Waddell L, David Legerand Eduardo Taboada Dr Agnes Agunos (center in picture) is a Scientist working at the Public Health Agnency of Canada. She is engaged in antimicrobial drug resistance research programs and below is the highlight of one of the project’s findings. In Canada, Campylobacter remains one of the leading causes […]

Aspartate alleviates liver injury and regulates mRNA expressions of TLR4 and NOD signaling-related genes in weaned pigs after lipopolysaccharide challenge

Leng W, Liu Y, Shi H, Li S, Zhu H, Pi D, Hou Y, Gong J Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in many models of liver injury. In addition, aspartate (Asp) plays an important role in many biological and physiological processes including liver physiology. We hypothesized that Asp could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. […]

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms

Fournier J, Schwean-Lardner K, Knezacek TD, Gomis S, Classen HL Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the […]

Supervised learning and prediction of spatial epidemics

Pokharel G and Deardon R Parameter estimation for mechanistic models of infectious disease can be computationally intensive. Nsoesie et al. (2011) introduced an approach for inference on infectious disease data based on the idea of supervised learning. Their method involves simulating epidemics from various infectious disease models, and using classifiers built from the epidemic curve […]

CpG-ODNs induced changes in cytokine/chemokines genes expression associated with suppression of infectious bronchitis virus replication in chicken lungs

Dar A, Tikoo S, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Townsend H, Gerdts V, Mutwiri G The process of virus replication in host cells is greatly influenced by the set of cytokines, chemokines and antiviral substances activated as a result of host-virus interaction. Alteration of cytokines profiles through manipulation of the innate immune system by innate immune […]

Toll-like receptor 2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid is inhibitory against infectious laryngotracheitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo

Haddadi S, Thapa S, Kameka AM, Hui J, Czub M, Nagy E, Muench G, Abdul-Careem MF Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is one of the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that activates toll-like receptor (TLR)2-cluster of differentiation (CD)14 signalling pathway. This recognition elicits antiviral responses that have been recorded against viruses of mammals although such responses have […]

Genotyping of infectious bronchitis viruses identified in Canada between 2000 and 2013

Martin EA1, Brash ML, Hoyland SK, Coventry JM, Sandrock C, Guerin MT, Ojkic D Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected in 185 samples originating from chicken flocks of various commodity groups in Canada. Flocks with clinical signs such as respiratory challenge, sudden death, egg production problems, or nephropathogenic conditions, and randomly selected flocks sampled at […]

Red light is necessary to activate the reproductive axis in chickens independently of the retina of the eye

Baxter M1, Joseph N, Osborne VR, Bédécarrats GY Photoperiod is essential in manipulating sexual maturity and reproductive performance in avian species. Light can be perceived by photoreceptors in the retina of the eye, pineal gland, and hypothalamus. However, the relative sensitivity and specificity of each organ to wavelength, and consequently the physiological effects, may differ. […]

Comparison of fiber gene sequences of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and non-IBH strains of serotype 8 and 11 fowl adenoviruses.

Grgić H, Krell PJ, Nagy E ——————————————————————————————————- Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are common in broiler operations, and the most frequently isolated FAdVs belong to serotypes 1, 8, and 11. Serotype 1 viruses are considered nonpathogenic. While some serotype 8 and 11 viruses cause inclusion body hepatitis (IBH), these virus serotypes can also be isolated from non-IBH […]

TLR ligands induce antiviral responses in chicken macrophages

Barjesteh N, Behboudi S, Brisbin JT, Villanueva AI, Nagy E, Sharif S ——————————————————————————————————- Chicken macrophages express several receptors for recognition of pathogens, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) derived from bacterial or viral pathogens leading to the activation of macrophages. Macrophages play a critical role in immunity against viruses, including […]