Guerin MT, Martin SW, Darlington GA, Rajic A. Can J Vet Res 2005 Apr; 69(2):88-99.
Passive laboratory-based surveillance data from Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development were analyzed for common Salmonella serovars, prevalences, trends, and for the presence of temporal clusters. There were 1767 isolates between October 1990 and December 2001 comprising 63 different serovars, including 961 isolates from chickens, 418 from cattle, 108 from pigs, 102 from turkeys, and 178 from all other species combined. Salmonella Typhimurium, Heidelberg, Hadar, Kentucky, and Thompson were the 5 most frequently isolated serovars. Approximately 60% of the S. Typhimurium were isolated from cattle, whereas over 90% of the S. Heidelberg, Hadar, Kentucky, and Thompson were isolated from chickens. Salmonella Enteritidis was rarely isolated. There was an increasing trend in isolates from chickens, cattle, and pigs, and a decreasing trend in isolates from turkeys. Temporal clusters were observed in 11 of 15 serovars examined in chickens (S. Anatum, Heidelberg, Infantis, Kentucky, Mbandaka, Montevideo, Nienstedten, Oranienburg, Thompson, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), 5 of 5 serovars in cattle (S. Dublin, Montevideo, Muenster, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. Copenhagen), and 1 of 3 serovars in pigs (S. Typhimurium). Short-duration clusters may imply point source infections, whereas long-duration clusters may indicate an increase in the prevalence of the serovar, farm-to-farm transmission, or a wide-spread common source. A higher concentration of clusters in the winter months may reflect greater confinement, reduced ventilation, stressors, or increased exposure to wildlife vectors that are sharing housing during the winter. Detection of large clusters of Salmonella may have public health implications in addition to animal health concerns.